The Cuyahoga fire is often described in history books as a wake-up call to the nation.
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By the early s, a strong environmental consciousness took hold. China today — as it begins to come to terms with air, water and land befouled by three decades of industrialization — bears some resemblance to the United States of the late s.
Attitudes in China are changing. This growing anxiety is reflected in the rising frequency of environmental protests. In the past year, people have taken to the streets in cities throughout the country to protest the building of coal-fired power plants, chemical plants, oil refineries, waste incinerators, and the like.
Why this budding environmental consciousness now? The answer is simple: was, by any accounting, one horrific year for the environment. The quality of the air over Beijing was worse than a typical airport smoking lounge.
The World Health Organization said it was 40 times higher than the level deemed safe to breathe. Since then, incidents of equally deadly air pollution have struck Shanghai, Tianjin, Hangzhou and other cities. For two weeks, not just a few dead pigs or even a few hundred, but 16, pig carcasses floated past Shanghai.
Farmers upstream were apparently disposing of dead and virus-stricken hogs by dumping them in local rivers. These villages are usually just downstream from an industrial plant that discharges hazardous waste into rivers that villagers use to drink and to irrigate their crops. Chinese nongovernmental organizations and environmental experts put the current number of cancer villages at more than Parties and government are often not able to fulfil these requests because of pressure in terms of conformity and acceptance in view of potential constituents.
Apart from political parties and NGOs there are so-called public interest groups and other associations.
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They resulted from the anti-Vietnam activism and the civil rights movement. These associations have a high tradition and also a very important function in the USA. They try to be a lobby for different interests of citizens and so they also participate enlargely in the political level.
A very traditional association and public interest group is the Sierra Club with more than In this context persons in associations like, e.
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The United States of America have a very bad reputation for environmental issues. And in fact they have made and do a lot of failures:.
The refusal to join the Kyoto Protocol , the noncommittal reaction refering climate goals at the G8 meeting and the facts that the per head consumption of water and oil is nowhere in the world higher than in the USA. Further every third household has three cars or more and with just three percent of the world population the Americans produce 25 percent of all CO2 emissions.
The traffic increased the last 20 years approximately over 80 percent and air conditioning seems to be standard. But these suppositions disguise other facts about the United States of America and its people. The USA is a state with one of the highest rates of participation in voluntary associations. So three of five people say that they perform in such ones.
These honorary positions are mostly in religious communities but nevertheless these communities also begin to attach greater value on environmental interests. The participation in charitable or non-profit institutions in the United States is upon 68 percent. In Germany it is just ten percent of the population that owns a membership in a similar organisation. Beyond this, five percent of the Americans fulfil honorary positions in the same sphere, compared to just three percent in Germany.
K G Katrin Geier Author. Add to cart. All these associations and organisations increased considerably during the last 50 years. And in fact they have made and do a lot of failures: The refusal to join the Kyoto Protocol , the noncommittal reaction refering climate goals at the G8 meeting and the facts that the per head consumption of water and oil is nowhere in the world higher than in the USA. Hartmut Wasser , p. Stand Stand: Sign in to write a comment.
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